Hyperglycemia |Hyperglycemia Symptoms, Prevention, Remedial Treatment
What Is Hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia is a medical term used to denote high blood sugar levels which are higher than normal. It is a condition wherein the amount of blood sugar circulating in plasma is greater than 126 mg/dL., when the blood sample is studied after the patient has abstained from eating any liquid or solid food/ been on fasting continuously immediately during the preceding twelve hours.
Hyperglycemia is a major indicator of all three types of diabetes -- Type I, Type II and Prediabetes. When a person is reported to have hyperglycemia, he might be the victim of any type of diabetes. Presence of high levels of blood sugar is caused by accumulation of unabsorbed glucose (from the digested food) due to non-production/underproduction of hormone called insulin which is responsible for proper assimilation of glucose into tissue cells of different parts of body. Tissue cells get energy or oxygen from the glucose received by them. When there is malfunctioning in the mechanism of supplying oxygen to tissues, different internal organs/limbs of the body get to function inefficiently. Non-supply of oxygen comes up with two major complications… a) Reduction in functioning abilities of organs with oxygen-starved tissues and b) Piling up of blood sugar left unutilized in the system.
The other culprits responsible for hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing’s syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumours, pancreatic cancer, certain specific medications and severe illnesses. Pancreatitis is the inflammation of pancreas caused by many factors such as gallstones, excessive alcoholic intake, direct physical injury, certain medications, mumps etc. Cushion’s syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity with thin arms and legs, weak muscles, acne and brittle skin. Certain deliberate intravenous injecting of clinical steroids too can mar the functioning of pancreas.
Symptoms of Hyperglycemia:
- Increased frequency for urination ( polyuria ), more particularly at night
- Dry mouth or Increased thirst ( polydipsia )
- Increased hunger ( polyphagia )
- Unexplained weight loss
- Pricking sensation/numbness or in feet ( disesthesias )
- Tiresomeness or perspiration even for minor physical exertion
- Recurring or severe infections
- Obscured vision
- Fainting due to acute vertigo/dizziness, vomiting (Ketoacidiosis ) or slipping into coma, or even death in some extreme cases.
Prevention and Remedial treatment of Hyperglycemia:
Hyperglycemia can be prevented by regular self-monitoring and frequent medical check-ups. If the medical reports reveal that hyperglycemia has set in, the most fundamental remedial measures include
- Uncompromising adherence to diet control as recommended the physician
- Relentless regular physical exercises to burn out calories from accumulated glucose in the body
- Injecting appropriate doses of insulin, strictly as prescribed by medical doctor specialized in the field
- Amending all the above practices, in accordance with/in adaptation to the change in blood sugar levels noticed in frequent medical check-ups.
It is extremely important to note that hyperglycemia, if neglected, can drag the patient into a fatal state called ketoacidiosis resulting in irreversible coma and eventual death.