Diabetes Mellitus | Diabetes Types |Gestational Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus

What is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes Mellitus, or simply diabetes, is an abnormality of health caused by metabolic disorders characterized by accumulation of unabsorbed high blood sugar levels over a considerably lengthy period of time. In a normal healthy individual, during digestion, a hormone called insulin is produced sufficiently by a certain type of cells called “beta-cells” as and when required by the system. Insulin enables absorption of glucose (blood sugar) into the system. Diabetes is caused by any of the factors mentioned below:

Non-production of insulin by damaged beta-cells or insufficient production;

                 Or

Insulin produced by beta-cells not recognized/accepted by the system for internal absorption.

In both the above cases, blood sugar/glucose formed during digestion gets accumulated due to inefficient utilisation of insulin or non-production of insulin. The prolonged state of ever-increasing amounts of unabsorbed blood sugar results in a chronic complication called “Diabetes Mellitus” or more simply referred to as mere “Diabetes”. 

Diabetes, when detected in early stages, can be prevented from further progressing. If left unchecked, diabetes can assume alarming proportions damaging internal organs of the body and debilitating physical stamina. If the morbid conditions are allowed to go still further without any regulating measures, it can cause premature death.

Diabetes Mellitus

Persons affected by diabetes are found to be victims of three types such as :

Type I Diabetes or Juvenile Diabetes

Type II Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

What is Type I Diabetes or Juvenile Diabetes?

Type I Diabetes is generally noticed to effect children or adolescents, thus earning an additional name Juvenile Diabetes. Though the type I attacks mostly younger children and grown up kids, it is not uncommon to spot it even in aged people but in rare cases. Either total stoppage of insulin production or its underproduction is inferred as the cause of Type I Diabetes. If the DM1 (Diabetes Mellitus 1) is left untreated without any remedial measures, it progresses ahead weakening the immune system and finally eventual death.

What is Type II Diabetes?

The most commonly observed variety of diabetes is the Type II. It attacks middle-aged people, older people in majority of the cases. Recent observations reveal that it makes its appearance in young adults too. Type II diabetes is understood to occur due to insulin-insensitivity of the system, i.e., the insulin produced in the body is rejected by the system as useless or unfit for absorption. Consequently, there is an unwanted build-up of blood glucose which begins to act as a toxin in the body. The major complications caused by the Type II are crippling the immune system, damaging the internal organs like kidneys and eyes, impairing the internal healing power etc. Timely remedial measures, healthy food habits, minimum physical regular exercise can keep the body in relatively safer position. Deliberate control of sugar levels is the most important regulatory measure. Prolonged negligence of the disease can assume irreversible proportions and prove ghastly fatal, in the cases of extreme severity.

What is Gestational Diabetes?

This occurs in the cases of pregnant women. Its occurrence is in 2 to 4 in a hundred pregnant women. This is a temporary phase and vanishes soon after child birth. Very few cases are noticed when both mother and child are affected by gestational diabetes.  Since most of the cases are of short term, they can be cured by simple medication.