Magnesium Element in Periodic Table | Atomic Number Atomic Mass


Magnesium Element:

Magnesium is an element in the second group of periodic table with atomic number 12 and it is in the third period of the periodic table. The elements in the second group of the periodic table are called alkaline earth metals and they have two electrons in their outermost orbital. The combining capacity or valency of alkaline earth metals are 2 and the elements have a tendency to attain stable electronic configuration by donating two electrons present in their outermost orbital. It is a highly reactive element and reacts with oxygen in the atmosphere by forming a layer of its own oxide around the pure metal, decreasing its reactivity with atmospheric oxygen further.

The density of Mg is low as compared to aluminium which has a density of one and half times more than that of magnesium. Mg melts at 650°C and its flames are too difficult to be extinguished. The temperature of the Mg flames can go up to 3100 °C and they keep burning reacting with nitrogen in the air to form magnesium nitride and carbon dioxide to form magnesium oxide and carbon. Since the traditional methods of extinguishing the fire does not serve the purpose, heaps of sand is dumped on magnesium flames to cut off its contact with atmospheric gases.

Mg is an important constituent in human body. The deficiency of Mg causes fatigue, insomnia, muscular cramps, poor memory, delirium etc. It is an indispensible element in biological synthesis of ATP.

Magnesium Element Uses:

Magnesium is the third largely used metal after iron and aluminium. Its alloys are used in aircrafts and automobiles. It is used in preparation of laptops, mobile phones, tablet computers, cameras and other electronic equipment. Milk of magnesia, a medicinal variant of magnesium hydroxide, is helpful in treating indigestion, bowel movements, acidity in stomach. Mg batteries are used as primary batteries and taken as basis for preparing secondary rechargeable batteries. Mg oil, though not really oil, is a mixture of magnesium chloride in water and is used in treatment of muscle pains (caused by deficiency of magnesium) by absorption through skin.


Magnesium Element Information:

Discovery year: 1755

Discovered by: Joseph Black

Atomic number: 12

Relative atomic mass: 24.305 

Electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2

Block: s-block

Other elements in the same block:

Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Beryllium, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Rubidium, Strontium, Caesium, Barium, francium and Radium are other elements in the s-block.

Period: period 3

Other elements in the same period:

Sodium, Aluminium, Silicon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine and Argon

Group: group 2 (alkaline earth metals)

Other elements in the same group:

Beryllium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium are the elements in the same group.

Other elements in the same orbital:

Sodium is the element in the same orbital.

Allotropes: none

Key isotopes: 24Mg 

Melting point: 650°C, 1202°F, 923 K

Boiling point: 1090°C, 1994°F, 1363 K

Element category: alkaline earth metal

Density (g cm−3): 1.74

CAS number: 7439-95-4

Color: shiny grey solid

You can know detailed information for each element,

Hydrogen, HeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorine,  Neon , SodiumMagnesiumAluminiumSiliconPhosphorusSulfurChlorineArgon, PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromine, Krypton,  Rubidium, StrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodine, Xenon,  Caesium, BariumLanthanum,  CeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercuryThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatine, Radon,  Francium, RadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumNihoniumFleroviumMoscoviumLivermoriumTennessine, Oganesson.

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