Hydrogen Element in Periodic Table | Atomic Number Atomic Mass
There are many methods of producing H in bulk quantities. One of the cost effective methods is to manufacture H in large quantities by “steam reforming (thermal cracking)” of natural gas. At a temperature range between 700- 1100̊ C, steam or water vapor reacts with methane to form carbon monoxide, liberating hydrogen.
Preparation in laboratory:
- By the action of cold water on highly reactive metals like alkali and certain alkaline earth metals:
The above reactions produce H, forming respective hydroxides liberating a lot of heat. Such reactions are exothermic which give out tremendous amount of heat. In order to reduce the amount of heat generated, amalgams of alkali metals are used as reactants such that a limited portion of metal undergoes reaction resulting in limited quantities of hydrogen and heat.
- By the action less active metals with boiling water :
- By the action of steam on very less active metals:
Heavy metals like Fe, Sn and Ni which are still less active than alkali and alkaline earth metals react with steam under high temperature decompose water molecules to liberate hydrogen gas resulting their own metallic oxides.
- By Electrolysis of water:
Di hydrogen of high purity is obtained by electrolysis of water in presence of small amount of acid or base because water in neutral medium is a poor conductor of electricity.
- From alkalis with amphoteric oxides as bye-product:
- By action on acids by downward displacement of water:
Metals which are more electropositive than hydrogen i.e., metals which lie above hydrogen in the list of electrochemical series Zn, Fe and Mg react with dilute mineral acids to produce hydrogen gas collected in an inverted glass jar over a beehive shelf, by downward displacement of water into a glass trough. Acids like HCl form respective metal chlorides, H2SO4 form metal sulphates as subsidiary products.
Uses of Hydrogen Element:
Hydrogen is used mainly
- as a reducing agent
- in hot air balloons
- in preparation of heavy water D2O with its isotope as a reactant
- in hydrogenation of fats and oils
- as a rocket fuel
- in welding metals
- In commercial fixation of nitrogen from air in Haber Ammonia process.
Hydrogen exists in three different isotopic forms. The atoms of H isotopes exhibit three different mass numbers 1, 2 and 3. If there is a single neutron in its nucleus, the atom is called protium; if there are two neutrons in the nucleus, the atom is called deuterium and if there are three neutrons in the nucleus, the atom is called tritium. The isotope of hydrogen called Protium is more reactive than deuterium. The third isotope of hydrogen, known as tritium, is radioactive in nature.
Hydrogen Element Information:
Discovery year: 1766
Discovered by: Robert Boyle (some believe that Henry Cavendish discovered it)
Atomic number: 1
Relative atomic mass: 1.00784, 1.00811
Electron configuration: 1s1
Other elements in the same block
Period: Period 1
Other elements in the same period
Helium is the element in the same period
Other elements in the same group
Other elements in the same orbital
Key isotopes: 1H, 2H
Melting point: 13.99 K (−259.16 °C, −434.49 °F)
Boiling point:20.271 K (−252.879 °C, −423.182 °F)
Element category: diatomic non-metal
Density (g cm−3): 0.000082
CAS number: 1333-74-0
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