Carbon Element in Periodic Table | Atomic Number Atomic Mass

Carbon

Carbon Element:

Carbon is a chemical element in the Group No.14 and in the second period of periodic table. Carbon is a tetravalent element and is non-metallic in nature. C  is touted as “King of elements” because its ability to react with other elements to form around ten millions of compounds practically and several times many more compounds theoretically propounded. In addition to being tetravalent, the most oxidation states of carbon are +4 in many inorganic compounds and +2 in carbon monoxide and other transitional metal carbonyl complexes. Because of its monumental tendency to form innumerable covalent compounds with special properties and wider range of applications, a separate branch of chemistry has been developed with C as the main element, known as organic chemistry. The sole study of reactivity of  C itself has grown so deep and extensive in mammoth proportions that organic chemistry has attained a status of a behemoth quasi-counterpart of inorganic chemistry. Life on earth in unimaginable because carbon is an essential component in living biological cells.

Apart from its extensive diversified chemical reactivity, It exists in different physical forms, more particularly in three well-known allotropes viz., coal, graphite and diamond under standard conditions of temperature and pressure. Since atomic C is highly reactive, it rearranges itself with its own atoms under different temperatures to form more stable amorphous allotropes. The artificially synthesized fullerenes which were earlier considered to be of limited usage are now commonly used in research such as bucky balls, carbon nanotubes, carbon Nanobuds and Nanofibres.

Isotopes:

All the isotopes of carbon have equal number of six protons, which is the atomic number of carbon, but different number neutrons varying from 2 to 16. The most commonly stable and commonly found isotopes on earth is 12C with an abundance of 98.93% and 13C which forms the remaining form of carbon on earth. The rest of the isotopes are unstable. 12C is taken as the basic criterion in calculating atomic weights of all elements.

Carbon Element Uses:

It combines with hydrogen to form hydrocarbons which are omnipresent in food and wood. It is an essential component in living cells. It  is an important atom in molecular structure of in almost all medicinal drugs. Plant life gets life-support from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, an indispensible compound for photosynthesis.

Impure carbon in the form of charcoal (from wood) and coke (from coal) has its application in metal smelting, especially in iron and steel industries. Graphite is used in manufacture of pencils, brushes in electric motors and in furnace linings.

Carbon fibre is used in making high tensile materials like tennis racquets, fishing rods. Rockets and airplanes. Diamond film layer is used in protecting the edges of razor blades. Carbon nanotubes, other fullerenes and atom-thin sheets of graphene are extensively used in electronics industry and nano technology.

Carbon

Carbon Element Information:

Discovered by:Egyptians and Sumerians

Discovery year:3750 BCE

Atomic number: 6

Relative atomic mass: 12.011

Electron configuration: [He] 2s2 2p2

Block: p-block

Other elements in the same block:

Boron, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Aluminium, Silicon, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine, Argon, Gallium, Germanium, Arsenic, Selenium, Bromine, Krypton, Indium, Tin, Antimony, Tellurium, Iodine, Xenon, Thallium, Lead, Bismuth, Polonium, Astatine, Radon, Nihonium, Flerovium, Moscovium, Livermorium, Tennessine and Oganesson are the same block elements.

Period: period 2

Other elements in the same period:

Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine and  Neon elements are in the same period

Group: group 14

Other elements in the same group:

Silicon, Germanium, Tin, Lead and Flerovium are the same group elements.

Other elements in the same orbital:

Boron, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon are the elements in the same orbital

Allotropes: graphite, diamond

Key isotopes: 12C, 13C, 14

Melting point: Sublimes at 3825°C, 6917°F, 4098 K

Boiling point: Sublimes at 3825°C, 6917°F, 4098 K

Element category: polyatomic non-metal

Density (g cm−3): 3.513 (diamond); 2.2 (graphite)

CAS number: 7440-44-0

Color: graphite: black; diamond: clear

You can know detailed information for each element,

Hydrogen, HeliumLithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorine,  Neon , SodiumMagnesiumAluminiumSiliconPhosphorusSulfurChlorineArgon, PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromine, Krypton,  Rubidium, StrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodine, Xenon,  Caesium, BariumLanthanum,  CeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercuryThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatine, Radon,  Francium, RadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumNihoniumFleroviumMoscoviumLivermoriumTennessine, Oganesson.

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