Country - Sudan


Sudan Country Information

Sudan is a country in the north east of the African continent. Khartoum is the capital and the largest city. In the world atlas, Sudan has a perfect geometrical horizontal border with Egypt that lies to its north. Sudan has common border with Libya in the northwest and Chad in the west. Central African Republic is in the southwest, South Sudan is in the south, Ethiopia and Eritrea are in the southeast of Sudan. The eastern border of Sudan is a coastline by the Red Sea.

English and Arabic are the official languages; the local culture has had impact on the Arabic language which came to be referred to as Sudanese Arabic. The main religion is Islam which influences the legal system in the country. The neighbouring country South Sudan was once a part of Sudan which dissociated itself in July 2011. With secession of South Sudan, the territorial area of Republic of Sudan is the third largest in the African continent, following Algeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Petroleum had been the major resource of Sudan until the separation of South Sudan in 2011 when 5-7 billion of barrels of oil reserves were lost to South Sudan. The population of Sudan was 39,578,828 and the average density of population was 21.3 per square kilometer as per the estimate of 2016. The per capita GDP (nominal) was US $ 3,459 as per the estimates of 2018.

The main exports of Sudan were gold, livestock, oil, Arabic gum and cotton with total exports amounting to US $4.2 billion as of 2017. The total imports were US $1.2 billion with the major items being motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, oil and mineral fuels, cereals, electrical machinery, pharmaceuticals, iron and steel and plastics.

Sudan is known to have more number of pyramids than Egypt, though quite lesser in size. The National Museum in the capital contains archaeological treasures pertaining to 6000 B.C. The Red Sea coast of Sudan has certain places suitable for scuba diving and snorkelling, like Jacque Cousteau’s underwater village and Sangnaeb reef.

Towards the southern part of Sudan, a wide variety of wild animals like hippos, zebras, crocodiles, antelopes, black and white rhinos, king-size elephants and the species of shoebill which are on the verge of extinction.

The pyramids of Meroe are built of sand-bricks unlike Egyptian pyramids and they appear in separate clusters of dozen at a time, in the vast stretches of desert. The archaeological sites of Naqa and Musawarat Es Sufra are the storehouses of ancient assets of the country. The Musawarat Temple was earlier a pilgrim centre and visitors of the site get to see the interior walls engraved with hieroglyphics of the animals that once roamed the land.

One of the most active wildlife forests of the world, the Dinder National Park is in possession of Sudan. The area is spread over 6475 sq kms inhabited by 27 species of large mammals and migratory birds.

Sudan is not totally devoid of scenic locations. It is a rare sight to watch the confluence of two rivers Blue Nile and White Nile at Sambat Bridge. Although the names do not comply with the actual colours of the river streams, Blue Nile seems laden with reddish brown silt that decelerate the flow and the White Nile looks clearer and lighter in its apparent hachures. The rendezvous of the two rivers makes it a special viewing site for visitors.

A visit to Sudan means an acquaintance with a different part of ancient world and wild life.