Country - Mongolia


Mongolia Country Information

Mongolia is a nation in the eastern part of the Asian continent. All the three borders in the west, south and east are bounded by China and the entire north border is shared by Russia, making Mongolia a land-locked country. The western tip of Mongolia is shared by both China and Russia, although the extreme western region is hardly 37 kilometers from Kazakhstan. Ulaanbaatar is the capital and the largest city of Mongolia and the official language is Mongolian.

Most of the land in the country is thinly populated with the exception that 45% of the population is found in the capital city.  As per the estimates of 2016, the population of Mongolia was 30,81,677 spread over an area of 15,66,000 square kilometers which leads to the statistical conclusion that the average density of population is about 2 people per square kilometer. Buddhism is the predominant religion practised by 53% of population and the rest of people belong to Islam, Christianity, Shamanism, paganism and atheism.

Mongolia declared itself fully independent from China in 1911 but the status of independence was recognized by China in 1946 and the current constitution came into force with effect from 1992. The country has been rated as one of the low middle income group economies by the World Bank and the population below the poverty line was estimated as 32.2% in 2006. The per capita GDP (nominal) was $3100 in 2011 and increased to $4029 as per the estimate in 2018.

The main items of exports from Mongolia are mineral products of copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, gold, natural or cultured stones, jewelry, textiles, animal origin products, hides and skins. The total value of exports was US$ 5.35 billion as of August 2018. Its imports too hovered around at US$5.36 billion in the same period. The major imports into Mongolia were mineral products, machinery, equipment, electric appliances, recorders, TV sets and spare parts, vehicles, food products and base metals.

Tourism in Mongolia is yet to begin on an extensive scale. Being a country with sprawling land area, Mongolia poses a big task to roam across as the tourist infrastructure has not taken roots adequately well and is in the rudimentary stages of development.

While proceeding to explore the interior places of the country, it is advisable to stay a couple of days in the capital city Ulaanbaatar and get familiarized with the national customs and culture. The city is home to numerous visit-worthy places like museums, monasteries and monuments reflecting the native tradition. Ulaanbaatar can be reached by tourists through the routine mode of flight journey as well as trans-Siberian railway route between Russia and China. In contrast to its reputation of being the nomadic land, the country beams brilliantly with high class urbanity and modern life style in the capital city.

One cannot miss the imposing centre square of Sukhbaatar which houses the monument in honour of the ancient national hero-warrior Genghis Khan. The concave shaped giant mural panel at Zaisan monument in an open place in northern part of the capital is a painting of workforce and influential people who symbolize the friendship between Russia and Mongolia. Gandantegchinlen Monastery is a peaceful site and Bogdkhan Mountain is good for hiking and skiing. Hunnu Mall is an indoor skating court near the international airport. If you come out of Ulaanbaatar to explore the other locations in the country, the most notable places are Khustain Nuruu national park in grassy lands, Erdene Zuuin (the oldest Buddhist Monastery of Mongolia) in Kharkhorin, Khamriin Khiid (Monastery in Urgun of Gobi desert) and The Mother Tree (a spiritual landmark of Shamanism) in Shammar.

A visit to Mongolia will reveal its history how the once nomadic life has been acquiring modern outfits and culture.